Archives du mot-clé multiculturalism

IMMIGRATION

Leaving one´s country: Running away, going into exile, travelling, discovering, studying, working….?

Key Questions (problématique)

  • Why do people migrate?
  • What are the impacts of emigration on the host country?(multicultural Britain/Melting pot in the USA/Spanglish in the USA/global cities and multiculturalism)
  • What are the impacts of emigration on the country of origin ? (brain drain migration/desertification of rural areas)
  • Emigration vs Immigration : impacts on host country and home country
  • Choose to migrate or forced to migrate – Why do people leave their home county?
  • How can a country benefit from immigration?

WHAT IS MIGRATION ?

Migration is the movement of people from one place to another. The reasons for migration can be economic, social, political or environmental. There are usually push factors and pull factors at work.

Migration impacts on both the place left behind, and on the place where migrants settle.

Migration is the movement of people from one place to another.

  • Internal migration is when people migrate within the same country or region – for example, moving from London to Plymouth.
  • International migration is when people migrate from one country to another – for example, moving from Mexico to the USA.

 Two key migration terms

  • Emigration – when someone leaves a country.
  • Immigration – when someone enters a country.

Why do people migrate?

People migrate for many different reasons. These reasons can be classified as economic, social, political or environmental:

  • economic migration – moving to find work or follow a particular career path
  • social migration – moving somewhere for a better quality of life or to be closer to family or friends
  • political migration – moving to escape political persecution or war
  • environmental causes of migration include natural disasters such as flooding

Some people choose to migrate, eg someone who moves to another country to enhance their career opportunities. Some people are forced to migrate, eg someone who moves due to war or famine.

A refugee is someone who has left their home and does not have a new home to go to. Often refugees do not carry many possessions with them and do not have a clear idea of where they may finally settle.

Push and pull factors

Push factors are the reasons why people leave an area. They include:

  • lack of services
  • lack of safety
  • high crime
  • crop failure
  • drought
  • flooding
  • poverty
  • war

Pull factors are the reasons why people move to a particular area. They include:

  • higher employment
  • more wealth
  • better services
  • good climate
  • safer, less crime
  • political stability
  • more fertile land
  • lower risk from natural hazards

Migration usually happens as a result of a combination of these push and pull factors.

Publicités

Modernity and Tradition in Britain

london-runners

Describe this scene photographed on the banks of the River Thames in London.

What elements attract your attention? What contrasts are underlined?

In what ways does this correspond to your view of London today?

 Describe this scene photographed on the banks of the River Thames in London. 

This scene, photographed on the banks of the River Thames in London, shows a group of athletes of both sexes and of mixed origins running along the river… There are various buildings in the background including the London Eye, a well-known, but relatively recently installed, tourist attraction… On the right is a fairly old building (the London County Hall), while to the left of the London Eye, a modern tower block (adjacent to the Royal Festival Hall) can be seen… The runners all seem concentrated on the race and are running side by side, looking ahead in the same direction… Among the runners, looking straight at the camera is a guard in uniform, and a second guard can be seen on the right, half out of the photo…

What elements attract your attention? What contrasts are underlined?

What strikes the viewer immediately is the guard in his red and black uniform running alongside the athletes… The contrast between the runners and the guard is underlined by the fact that the athletes are all wearing light running gear, whereas he is in uniform with his bearskin on his head… He may be included in the photo as a symbol of traditional Britain (normally he would be seen parading in front of Buckingham Palace) and of modernity (the fact that he is black in an élite army corps, steeped in tradition, may indicate that society in Britain is becoming more open and tolerant)… There are other contrasts in the photo, for instance old and new architecture and the mixed origins of the runners… So, on the one hand this is a photo of modern-day London but, on the other hand, the overall impression given by the photographer is a combination of tradition and modernity…

 

 

 

 

 

CANADA

canada governement

Topic 1 – Identity and languages.

Canadian Citizenship, Cultural Diversity and Multiculturalism

The Challenge of Diversity – Canada

Canadian Multiculturalism

3 documents to better understand the context of multiculturalism in Canada.(and the picture)

FACTS ABOUT CANADA

  • Canada is the second largest country in the world,. Canada´s national motoo ¨from sea to sea¨derives from its geographical position, from the Atlantic Ocean to the pacific Ocean.
  • Most people live along the southern border in cities like Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver and Ottawa.
  • English is the most spoken language, by nearly 60% of the population, then the French, spoken by some 20%, and the remaining 20% speak aboriginal languages
  • A bilingual country: The presence of two languages in Canada is explained by the history of colonization. The French were the first to colonize the area around Quebec, while the british settled in the northern and western regions. The Federal governement made French an official language of Canada along with English as a way to fight against separatist ideas in the second part of the 20th century.

The Bitter Legacy of Canada’s Forced-Assimilation Boarding Schools

English and French vs native languages: The Canadian government wanted the Aboriginal children to become English-speakers, but also to convert them into christianity. This is an example of a policy of ¨forced assimilation¨. The children were forced to leave their families for many years and were forbidden to speak their native language.  These documents raise several issues and cover several notions:

Seats and forms of power/Spaces and Exchanges: English and French versus native languages:

  • To what extend is a language a form of control ?
  • Can identity exist without a language?
  • Should a dying language be protected?
  • To what extend can Canada be considered a multicultural country?

Topic 2 – Borders – Open Spaces/new spaces

Borders delimit nations, but who decides on them? the question of the ownership of land is a complex issue. Does the land belong to anyone? If so, who does the land belong to? And by which right? These are the questions that Canadians are faced with.

Indigenous warn: COP 21 green schemes could be crimes against humanitybe

canada cop21.png

When it comes to land and land rights, the Inuits have a different point of view from other nations. For them, there is no such thing as borders. Land is not something that belongs to an individual, land but must be shared, protected and unspoiled and their way of life preserved. They want the right to profit from the Artic´s ressources but the superpowers do not share the same views…

Stop stealing our land, Inuits say, as Arctic resources race heats up

Global warming has opened up the Northwest Passage in the Artic Sea.This passage did not use to be navigable in winter but because of global warming and the melting of polar ice, it could soon be navigable all year long, which would make the Artic region easily accessible for the exploitation of its natural ressources. All five bordering nations (Canada, Danemark, Norway, Russia, the USA) have had plans to explore the region for years (rich in gas and oil ressources). But the land belong to the Inuits. This race for the exploration of the Artic´s natural ressources would be desastrous for the Inuits, but also for wildlife

Responsible Artic eco tourism Polar tourism was slow to start, but is now a popular and rapidly-growing industry that is expanding in terms of tourists, tour operators, diverse recreational pursuits, geographic scope, and seasons of use.  Arctic economies have seen it evolve from an incidental activity to a vital sector upon which they increasingly rely. This has been particularly true for newly enfranchised indigenous people of the Arctic seeking self-sufficiency, and for gateway cities in the southern hemisphere eager to realize the economic benefits of Antarctic tourism.

Seats and forms of power/ Spaces and Exchanges : Land and borders:

  • To what extent are the 5 power nations entitled to  the ressources of the Artic Circle?
  • How has the land shaped its people?
  • .Are borders a good thing?
  • Is a border a final frontier?

A press article and a video to illustrate the notion of Spaces and Exchanges

  1. Black Britons

2.  Multicultural Britain

Notion: Spaces and exchanges

Theme : Human exchanges

Key concept: Immigration to the UK – Multicultural Britain – Britishness

Questions :

What effect has immigration had on UK´s society?

How strong is the link that keeps the British together?

To what extent can Britain be considered as a multicultural country?

After having introduced the notion and the question you want to deal with, you need to present the documents that will illustrate your point.

If you choose to raise the question of Britain as a multicultural country, you should define multiculturalism first. (the preservation of different cultures or cultural identities within unified society, as a state or nation).

Both documents help us understand how Britain has evolved towards a multicultural society since the post-war years. Doc 1 deals with the different  waves of Caribbean migrants to Britain while doc 2 focuses on 2 generations, father and son from Kenya.

If the first generation of migrants felt more black than British, it is clearly explained that there is no contradiction for the younger generation (born in the 70´s) between ethnicity and identity as can be seen in the title ¨black Britons¨.

As for doc 2, to the question ¨what’s the best thing about living here, Sunny?¨, the young man answers : ¨The food, the different cultures that come in and bring their spices, their experiences and even their rituals, so you get a taste of the world within this small community¨. 

After presenting the documents, make a personal conclusion by giving your opinion on the documents and if you can by opening up onto another notion or future prospects.

These two documents could also be linked to the idea of progress because the younger generation of black Britons live a better life than their fathers. They feel part of a community, they feel proud to be British but also proud of their origins and this can indeed be considered as great progress for society.

A third document to add to your presentation …….

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 And two other quotes 

Tony Blair (UK Prime Minister 1997 – 2007- Labour Party)

¨A simple way to take measure of a country is to look at how many want in, and how many want out¨.

JFK : ¨Everywhere immigrants have enriched and strengthened the fabric of US life¨.