Archives du mot-clé London

LONDON:AN EVOLVING CITY

londonbrexit

It’s official – London is the most powerful city on the planet. According to this year’s Global Power Index, there’s no better place to work or live when you weigh up our economy and culture.

london-global-city                                                 london

London = a global city

London´s leading role as a global city

It´s time for London to leave the UK

What impact do global cities have on people´s everyday lives?

LONDON FOG

On Friday 5 December 1952, a thick yellow smog brought the capital to a standstill for four days and is estimated to have killed more than 4,000 people. London’s air may appear much cleaner today, but is still dangerously polluted. The coal pollution that caused the infamous ‘pea soupers’ has been replaced by invisible pollution – mainly from traffic fumes – resulting in 13,000 early deaths each year in the UK and 4,300 in London

60 years since the great smog of London

The pea-souper : It killed Londoners in droves, and inspired writers and artists from Melville to Monet: an atmospheric exploration of pollution in the capital

London. (….) Implacable November weather, (…) Smoke lowering down from chimney-pots, making a soft black drizzle with flakes of soot in it as big as full-grown snow-flakes – gone into mourning, one might imagine, for the death of the sun (…) Foot passengers, jostling one another´s umbrellas in a general infection of ill-temper, and loosing their foot.hold at streets corners, where tens of thousands of other foot passengers have been slipping and sliding since the day broke (if the day ever broke) …

Charles Dickens, Bleak House, Chapter 2, 1852

It was a foggy day in London, and the fog was heavy and dark. Animate London, with smarting eyes and irritated lungs, was blinking, whezzing, and choking; inanimate London was a sooty spectre, divided in purpose between being visible and invisible, and so being wholly neither (..) Even in the surrounding country it was a foggy day, but there the fog was grey, whereas in London it was, at about the boundary line, dark yellow, and a little within brown, and then browner, and then browner, until at the heart of the city – which call Saint Mary Axe – it was rusy-black.

Charles Dickens, Our Mutual Friends, 1865.

Charles Dickens (1812-1870), is considered to be one of the greatest writers of the 19th century: He lived in London. The rapidly growing industrial environment of the time served as a bachground to most of his novels : Little Dorrit, David Copperfield, The Adevntures of Oliver Twist. He is famous for his realistic depiction of the poverty and pollution that were generated by the industrial revolution.

THE EVOLUTION OF THE CITY

The growth of global cities have brought a wealth of culture, linguistic and ethnic diversity, helping to enrich everyday life and open new possibilities of exchange. However, the needs of such dense population have led to serious problems in terms of environment. From the slums and fog of Victorian London to the Great Smog of 1952 and the current issue of traffic pollution, global cities struggle to find solutions to reduce their carbon footprint and improve urban living conditions.

Will global cities find a way to create sustainable environment in the future?

 

 

Publicités

GLOBAL CITIES

global-cities

What does this expression make you think of?

Can you give some examples?

What can you find in most global cities?

What do they have in common? In terms of culture? Business? Services? Population? Architecture?

WHAT IS A GLOBAL CITY?

•Function as a key point in the global world economy
•Prominence of business and financial services
•Importance of global communication for the exchance of information
•Development of a global culture
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GLOBAL CITY
  • a large population
  • international financial institutions, law firms, corporate headquarters, stock
  • exchanges that have influence on the world economy, an advanced communication infrastructure
  • several international cultures and communities
  • a major international airport that provides flights to different parts of the world
  • an advanced transportation system that offers multiple modes of transportation
  • a lively cultural scene, including film festivals, a thriving music or
    theater scene, art galleries and street performers, cultural institutions such as museums and universities several powerful and influential media outlets with an international reach

NEW YORK…NEW YORK …  WHAT MAKES NEW YORK A GLOBAL CITY?

DIVERSITY

  • New York is a populous and diverse city with a population of 8.274.527
  • ¨melting pot¨ : 36% of the city`s population is foreign born
CONNECTIVITY
  • New York City is the top international air passenger gateway to the US Transportation:more than 12.000 yellow cabs
  • the New York City Subway: open 24 hours per day
CULTURE
¨Culture seems to be in the air, like part of the weather.¨ (Tom Wolfe)
  • A network of major cultural institutions such as Metropolitan Museum of Art ,The Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
  • Universities: New York is home to many universities such as    Columbia University, New York University…
  • Media: New York is a global center for the television, music and newspaper industries.
INTERNATIONAL HEADQUARTERS
  • New York is a major center for international affairs.
  • It is home to the United Nations headquartes complex.
  • Many major corporations are headquartered in New York City
FINANCIAL AND BUSINESS SERVICES
  • New York: one of the three ¨command centers¨ for the world economy
  • One of the key cities in global communication
  • New York Stock Exchange
  • NASDAQ
DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS OF GLOBAL CITIES
According to Saskia Sassen  (Dutch-American sociologist noted for her analyses of globalization and international human migration.  Sassen coined the term Global city)
– global cities fulfill coordinating roles and functions rather than competing against each other
– New York: major center for financial innovation
– London: international banking and financial center
– Paris: global financial center due to the structural features of its banking and financial system
 – London, Paris and Tokyo: national govermental capitals, but New York is not.
 – London, New York, Paris and Tokyo are all attractive cities for tourists, but the type of tourists is different.
PROBLEMS IN GLOBAL CITIES
  • Social polarization
In Sassen`s view: the economic structure of the global city leads to social polarization,
as the leading sectors employ a group of extraordinarily high earning individuals and create a demand for low-paid service workers.
  • High cost of living
  • High competition for top positions
  • Stress

Modernity and Tradition in Britain

london-runners

Describe this scene photographed on the banks of the River Thames in London.

What elements attract your attention? What contrasts are underlined?

In what ways does this correspond to your view of London today?

 Describe this scene photographed on the banks of the River Thames in London. 

This scene, photographed on the banks of the River Thames in London, shows a group of athletes of both sexes and of mixed origins running along the river… There are various buildings in the background including the London Eye, a well-known, but relatively recently installed, tourist attraction… On the right is a fairly old building (the London County Hall), while to the left of the London Eye, a modern tower block (adjacent to the Royal Festival Hall) can be seen… The runners all seem concentrated on the race and are running side by side, looking ahead in the same direction… Among the runners, looking straight at the camera is a guard in uniform, and a second guard can be seen on the right, half out of the photo…

What elements attract your attention? What contrasts are underlined?

What strikes the viewer immediately is the guard in his red and black uniform running alongside the athletes… The contrast between the runners and the guard is underlined by the fact that the athletes are all wearing light running gear, whereas he is in uniform with his bearskin on his head… He may be included in the photo as a symbol of traditional Britain (normally he would be seen parading in front of Buckingham Palace) and of modernity (the fact that he is black in an élite army corps, steeped in tradition, may indicate that society in Britain is becoming more open and tolerant)… There are other contrasts in the photo, for instance old and new architecture and the mixed origins of the runners… So, on the one hand this is a photo of modern-day London but, on the other hand, the overall impression given by the photographer is a combination of tradition and modernity…