Archives du mot-clé language

Shakespeare and the English language

shakespeare-lang-heritage

Even if you’ve never seen a Shakespeare play, you’ll have used one of his words or phrases.

Famous phrases

If you’ve ever been ‘in a pickle’, waited ‘with bated breath’, or gone on ‘a wild goose chase’, you’ve been quoting from The Tempest, The Merchant of Venice and Romeo and Juliet respectively.

Next time you refer to jealousy as « the green-eyed monster, » know that you’re quoting Othello’s arch villain, Iago. (Shakespeare was almost self-quoting here, having first touched on green as the colour of envy in The Merchant of Venice, where Portia alludes to “green-eyed jealousy.”)

Allow yourself to “gossip” (A Midsummer Night’s Dream), and you’re quoting him. « The be-all and end-all » is uttered by Macbeth as he murderously contemplates King Duncan, and « fair play » falls from Miranda’s lips in The Tempest.

Some phrases have become so well used that they’re now regarded as clichés – . « A heart of gold »? You’ll find it in Henry V, while “the world’s mine oyster” crops up in The Merry Wives of Windsor.

To be in a pickle

Sarah was in a pickle when she realized that she had missed the last bus home

To be in a difficult situation  – The Tempest

To go on a wild goose chase

I went on a wild goose chase around the supermarket trying to find my favourite cheese. No luck!

To search for something unsuccessfully  – Romeo and Juliet

To have someone in stitches

Sue always has me in stitches. She’s just so funny!

To make someone laugh uncontrollably  -Twelfth Night

To set someone’s teeth on edge

I hate the sound of someone sharpening a knife. It sets my teeth on edge.

To make someone feel annoyed or uncomfortable  – Henry IV Part 1

To eat someone out of house and home

When my brother comes to visit me, he eats me out of house and home but I still love him!

To consume so much food that there is very little left.  – Henry IV Part 2

To be as dead as a doornail

Although my hometown is as dead as a doornail, I still enjoy going back in the holidays.

dead, no life, quiet  – Henry IV Part 2

To vanish into thin air

I don’t know where my keys are. They’ve vanished into thin air.

To disappear  – Othello

To wear your heart on your sleeve

I always know if Jack is feeling sad because he wears his heart on his sleeve.

To show your emotions  – Othello

To have a heart of gold

Robert’s got a heart of gold because he always does his elderly neighbour’s shopping.

To be a very kind person  – Henry V

To do something all in one fell swoop

I like to do my homework all in one fell swoop and relax afterwards.

To do everything at the same time, or in one go – Macbeth

If the mark of a great writer is that they’re still read, then perhaps the mark of a genius is that they’re still spoken, too.

Publicités

IMMIGRATION

Leaving one´s country: Running away, going into exile, travelling, discovering, studying, working….?

Key Questions (problématique)

  • Why do people migrate?
  • What are the impacts of emigration on the host country?(multicultural Britain/Melting pot in the USA/Spanglish in the USA/global cities and multiculturalism)
  • What are the impacts of emigration on the country of origin ? (brain drain migration/desertification of rural areas)
  • Emigration vs Immigration : impacts on host country and home country
  • Choose to migrate or forced to migrate – Why do people leave their home county?
  • How can a country benefit from immigration?

WHAT IS MIGRATION ?

Migration is the movement of people from one place to another. The reasons for migration can be economic, social, political or environmental. There are usually push factors and pull factors at work.

Migration impacts on both the place left behind, and on the place where migrants settle.

Migration is the movement of people from one place to another.

  • Internal migration is when people migrate within the same country or region – for example, moving from London to Plymouth.
  • International migration is when people migrate from one country to another – for example, moving from Mexico to the USA.

 Two key migration terms

  • Emigration – when someone leaves a country.
  • Immigration – when someone enters a country.

Why do people migrate?

People migrate for many different reasons. These reasons can be classified as economic, social, political or environmental:

  • economic migration – moving to find work or follow a particular career path
  • social migration – moving somewhere for a better quality of life or to be closer to family or friends
  • political migration – moving to escape political persecution or war
  • environmental causes of migration include natural disasters such as flooding

Some people choose to migrate, eg someone who moves to another country to enhance their career opportunities. Some people are forced to migrate, eg someone who moves due to war or famine.

A refugee is someone who has left their home and does not have a new home to go to. Often refugees do not carry many possessions with them and do not have a clear idea of where they may finally settle.

Push and pull factors

Push factors are the reasons why people leave an area. They include:

  • lack of services
  • lack of safety
  • high crime
  • crop failure
  • drought
  • flooding
  • poverty
  • war

Pull factors are the reasons why people move to a particular area. They include:

  • higher employment
  • more wealth
  • better services
  • good climate
  • safer, less crime
  • political stability
  • more fertile land
  • lower risk from natural hazards

Migration usually happens as a result of a combination of these push and pull factors.

CANADA

canada governement

Topic 1 – Identity and languages.

Canadian Citizenship, Cultural Diversity and Multiculturalism

The Challenge of Diversity – Canada

Canadian Multiculturalism

3 documents to better understand the context of multiculturalism in Canada.(and the picture)

FACTS ABOUT CANADA

  • Canada is the second largest country in the world,. Canada´s national motoo ¨from sea to sea¨derives from its geographical position, from the Atlantic Ocean to the pacific Ocean.
  • Most people live along the southern border in cities like Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver and Ottawa.
  • English is the most spoken language, by nearly 60% of the population, then the French, spoken by some 20%, and the remaining 20% speak aboriginal languages
  • A bilingual country: The presence of two languages in Canada is explained by the history of colonization. The French were the first to colonize the area around Quebec, while the british settled in the northern and western regions. The Federal governement made French an official language of Canada along with English as a way to fight against separatist ideas in the second part of the 20th century.

The Bitter Legacy of Canada’s Forced-Assimilation Boarding Schools

English and French vs native languages: The Canadian government wanted the Aboriginal children to become English-speakers, but also to convert them into christianity. This is an example of a policy of ¨forced assimilation¨. The children were forced to leave their families for many years and were forbidden to speak their native language.  These documents raise several issues and cover several notions:

Seats and forms of power/Spaces and Exchanges: English and French versus native languages:

  • To what extend is a language a form of control ?
  • Can identity exist without a language?
  • Should a dying language be protected?
  • To what extend can Canada be considered a multicultural country?

Topic 2 – Borders – Open Spaces/new spaces

Borders delimit nations, but who decides on them? the question of the ownership of land is a complex issue. Does the land belong to anyone? If so, who does the land belong to? And by which right? These are the questions that Canadians are faced with.

Indigenous warn: COP 21 green schemes could be crimes against humanitybe

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When it comes to land and land rights, the Inuits have a different point of view from other nations. For them, there is no such thing as borders. Land is not something that belongs to an individual, land but must be shared, protected and unspoiled and their way of life preserved. They want the right to profit from the Artic´s ressources but the superpowers do not share the same views…

Stop stealing our land, Inuits say, as Arctic resources race heats up

Global warming has opened up the Northwest Passage in the Artic Sea.This passage did not use to be navigable in winter but because of global warming and the melting of polar ice, it could soon be navigable all year long, which would make the Artic region easily accessible for the exploitation of its natural ressources. All five bordering nations (Canada, Danemark, Norway, Russia, the USA) have had plans to explore the region for years (rich in gas and oil ressources). But the land belong to the Inuits. This race for the exploration of the Artic´s natural ressources would be desastrous for the Inuits, but also for wildlife

Responsible Artic eco tourism Polar tourism was slow to start, but is now a popular and rapidly-growing industry that is expanding in terms of tourists, tour operators, diverse recreational pursuits, geographic scope, and seasons of use.  Arctic economies have seen it evolve from an incidental activity to a vital sector upon which they increasingly rely. This has been particularly true for newly enfranchised indigenous people of the Arctic seeking self-sufficiency, and for gateway cities in the southern hemisphere eager to realize the economic benefits of Antarctic tourism.

Seats and forms of power/ Spaces and Exchanges : Land and borders:

  • To what extent are the 5 power nations entitled to  the ressources of the Artic Circle?
  • How has the land shaped its people?
  • .Are borders a good thing?
  • Is a border a final frontier?